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      C位体育官网手机版登陆ChinaEntrepreneursSurveySystemofhumanresourceresearchandtrainingcenterofDRCResearchReportNo127,2010TheEntrepreneurSurveySystemattachedtotheHumanResourceStudyandTrainingCenterofDRChasissued16,000questionnaireson"Follow-upQuestionnaireSurveyofChineseBusinessOperators2009",5,31provinces,,thenumbe%%respectively;t%,%%,%.,butthinkitmoredi%ofbusinessoperatorsare"quitefamiliarwith"or"familiarwith"relevantstrategictheories,%ofthemare"familiaronthewhole"%ofthemare"quiteunfamiliar"or"lessfamiliar";over70%ofenterpriseshavemappedoutwrittenstrategicplansforaperiodofmorethanoneyearandlessthan1/3ofthemhaveformulatedstrategicplansforaperiodofoverthreeyears;%ofbusinessoperatorsagreeorquiteagreethat"itismuchmoredifficulttoimplementthestrategiesthantomapthemout",%%,(Theevaluationofestimateiscalculatedona5-pointbasisquiteagree=5,agree=4,justagree=3,disagree=2,quitedisagree=,),,businessoperatorshavebasicallyrecognizedtheimportanceoftheenterprisestrategyandknowaboutstrategictheories,yetonlylessthanonethirdofenterpri,mostbusinessoperatorsthinkitmuchmoredifficulttoimplementstrategiesthantomapthemout,whichsuggeststhatformulatingeffectivestrategiesandimprovingtheabilitytoimplementthest(SOEs)andpersonaldecision-makingispracticedinnon-state-ownedbusinessesWithregardtothemainworkwhichoperatorsaredirectlyinchargeof,%oftheoperatorshavechosen"formulationofstrategies",,%oftheoperatorshavechosenthepositionof"Director/GeneralManager",rankingthetop,%ofthemhavechosenpositionsin"BoardofDirectors",rankingthesecond,withotherschoosingpostsin"managergroups"orin"highercompetentauthorities"and"leadingenterprisePartygroups".Thesurveyshowsthatdirector/generalmanagerandboardofdirectorsareonthewholethemainbodytofinalizestrategicdecisionsandfinalstrategicdecisionsaremadebydirectors/generalmanagersinhalfoftheenterprises,oupsinover60%ofthestate-ownedenterprisesandsuchdecisionsaremadebydirectors/generalmanagersinmorethan50%e-ownedenterprises,ongoperatorsisofcriticalimportancetotheenhancementofthedecision-makingabilityWithregardtothemethodsforimprovingthestrategicdecision-makingability,thesurveyshowsthatthefirstthreechoicesbybusinessoperatorsaresuccessively"optimizinghighermanagementgroups","improvingstrategicthinkingamongentrepreneurs"and"amelioratinginstitutionalframeworkandmanagementsystems".Otherchoicesinclude"encouragingemployeestoparticipateindecision-making","transformingpersonalvaluesofentrepreneurs","shapinginnovativeculture"and"optimizingprocessofstrategicdecision-making".Thesurveyshowsthat,generallyspeaking,businessoperatorsthinkthatthemainchannelsforimprovingthedecision-makingabilityaresuccessively"optimizinghighermanagementgroups","improvingstrategicthinkingamongentrepreneurs","amelioratinginstitutionalframeworkandmanagementsystems","encouragingemployeeparticipation"and"transformingpersonalvaluesofentrepreneurs".,"optimizingequitiesandcorporategovernance"issecondonlyto"optimizinghighermanagementgroups"and"improvingstrategicthinkingamongentrepreneurs",rankingthethird,whichsuggeststhat,forstateandstatecontrollingcompanies,equityoptimizationandsystematicreformisstillo"imperative"and"visionary",withlessparticipationbyemployeesThesurveyhasbeenmadeinto"imperative","visionary","formalstrategicplan"and"employeeparticipation""imperative","visionary"and"formalstrategicplan"decision-makingmodelsandspeakrelativelylowofthe"employeeparticipation"reemodelstomakedecisionsandhavelaidparticularstresson"imperative"and"visionary",the"imperative"modelhasbeenscoredthehighest,indicatingthattheimperativedecision-makingiscurrenorereacting"imperative"or"visionary"models,whichtoacertainextentreflectsthedynamicsandcomplexityofthebusinessenvironmentinChinaandstressestheimpactoftraditiona,the"employeeparticipation"modelhasbeenscoredlowly,suggestingthatemployeesofC,profitability,overallqualityandsocialperformanceand,meanwhile,hasanalyzedthecorrelationbetweendecision-makingmodelsandthebusinessperformance(Thegrowthincludessalesgrowthandmarketoccupancy;profitabilityincludesprofitmargin,profitlevelandrateofreturnoninvestment;overallqualityincludescompetitiveposition,customersatisfactionandstabilityofworkers;socialperformanceincludessocialimage,).Thesurveyshowsthat"visionary","formalstrategicplan"and"employeeparticipation"modelshaveaconspicuouspositivecorrelationwithallthefouraspectsofthebusinessperformance,whilethe"imperative"modelhasaconspicuouspositivecorrelationonlywithoverallqualityandsocialperf"imperative"modelplaysonthewholeapartofsuccessandfailureinthedevelopmentofChineseenterprisesandthat,toraisethebusinessperformance,weshouldononehandstepupthestrategicthinkinganddecision-makingabilityofbusinessoperatorsandontheotherhandshouldplaceimportanceon"visionary","formalstrategicplan"and"employeeparticipation"modelsandenhancetherationalityofthedecision-makingmodels.—SurveyonShandongTextileEnterprisesByShenHengchao,DepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearch,theDRCResearchReportNo124,2009Withasignificantroleinadmittingemploymentandincreasingfarmersincome,textileindustryisthetraditionalpillarindustryinnationaleconomy,aswellasanimportantindustryforpeople,textileind,industrythroughinnovation,wemadeasurveyrespectivelyinRuyiGroup,LutaiGroup,:textiletechnologyofindependentresearchanddevelopmenthasbrokenthroughthelimitofpresenttechnologyofspunhighcountcottonyarnThepr,especiallytherapiddevelopmentinnearly10years,thegrouphasbeeninvolvedinmajorbusinessaswooltopmaking,worsted,rabbithairspinning,clothes,cottontextile,cottondyeprinting,knitting,fiberandjean,andhasestablishedacompletewoolfashionandcottondyeingindustrychain.(1)EstablishingrelativelycompletetechnologyinnovationanddevelopmentsystemRecognizedashi-techenterprisein2008,RuyiGrouphasbeenlistedthenationalnew-productdevelopmentbaseofwooltextileindustrybyChinaNationalTextileandApparelCouncil(CNTAC).Underthesystemofnationalenterprisetechnologycenter,thegroupboastsapost-doctoralscientificresearchworkstation,ShandongTaishanScholarposition,ShandongNewTextileFabricsEngineeringResearchCenter,RuyiTechnologyResearchInstitute,Group-levelTechnologyCenterandCompany-levelTechnologyCenter,whichareresponsiblefortechnologyreposition,ithleadinglevelsinChina,outofwhich4areawardedNationalScienceandTechnologyAdvancementPrize,and40areawardedprovincialandmunicipalprizesforprogressinscienceandtechnology(including3provincialfirstprizes,7secondprizesand2ministry-levelfirstprizes).Thegrouphas22patentsgrantedwithpatentrightsand30patentsapplications(including1PCTpatentforinvention,1Americanand7Chinesepatentsforinvention),RuyiGroupfirstattendedthetopmaterialworldexpoFrancePV(thefirstvisionexpo),showingthattheenterprisehasacquiredthecapacityofdevelopingtop-leveltextilematerialandissuingpopulartrendofmaterials.(2)ResearchinganddevelopingtextiletechnologyofRuyifangindependentlyandemphasizingnewproductdevelopmentRuyiGroup,WuhanInstituteofScienceandTechnology,XianPolytechnicUniversityhavesuccessivelydevelopedthroughcooperation"shortandefficientflowofembeddedcompositespinningtechnology(Ruyifang)"inFebruary,2009,whichbrokethroughthelimitofpresentring-spinningtechnologyofhigh-countworstedandrealizedlow-gradefibermaterialsandleftovershigh-countworstedandreachedspinningapplicationoffibermaterialswhichwerepreviou(CNTAC)andacademiciansfromtheChineseAcademyofEngineering,itbelongstoasignificantoriginaltechnologywhichwillreinforcetheinternationalcompetitiveedgeofChinaNationalTextileandApparelCouncil(CNTAC),homemadesuperfinewoolyarnprocessingtechnology,techniqueofsingleyarnweaving,clearproductiontechnology,enzymetreatmenttechnology,non-formaldehydewrinkle-resistanceandshrink-prooftechnology,multiplechemicaltechnology,technologyofrecoveryandutilizationofwastewaterremainingheat,,RuyiGrouphasdevelopedaseriesofproductsasSirofil,high-countlight-weightworstedfabric,ecologicalenvironmentalprotection,shape-memory,washable,superfinecashmere,lycraelasticandwater,,000ty,Sirofilspinningtechnologyanditsserialproductswereawardedthesecond-classNationalScienceandTechnologyAdvancementPrize,whichisthehighestscienceandtechnolodworld-toplevel,winningthegrouptwofirst-classScienceandTechnologyAdvancementPrizesawardedbyChinaNationalTextileandApparelCouncil(CNTAC):emphasizingresearchanddevelopmentandexploitingnewproductswithforeigncustomersLutaiGroupisthelargesttop-gradeyarn-dyedfacefabricmanufacturerintheworldandhastheproductionandresearchcapacityofcompleteproductionchainsascottonplanting,spinning,anddyeing,cleaning,,,LutaiGroupbelongstothetopyarn-dyedfacefabricmanufacturercompetingagainstNisshinboTextileInc.(Japan),ABINI(Italy)andMONTI(Italy).,%%,%.(1)StrengtheningtheenterpriseresearchanddevelopmentsystemandenlargingtheinvestmentLutaiGroupwasrecognizedasthehi-techenterpriseagainin2008ansideaonpromotingcompetitionistomeetcustomer,researchanddevelopmentexpenditureaccountsforover5%lpatents,,LutaiGrouphasgraduallyformedathree-levelresearchanddevelopmentsystemwhichregardsenterprisetechnicalcentreasthepillarcomposedoftechnologyresearchsectionofeachbnologysuchasoffice,trainingcenter,pilotbaseforspinning,weaving,cleaningandclothesmaking,qualityinspectioncenter,promotiondepartmentoftechnologydevelopment,post-doctoralresearchworkstation,LutaitechnicalresearchcenterofDonghuauniversity,LutaiKleintechnologyresearchcenterfortextile,dyeingandfinishinganddevelopmentanddesigncenterforItalianproducts,iveministriesofthecountryanditslaboratoryhaspassedthecertificationbyChinaNationalAccreditationServiceforConformityAssessment(CNAS).

      ByWangWeiLiuTao,DRCTaskForceon"IssuesFacingSmallandMedium-sizedEnterprises:CountermeasuresunderNewCircumstances",2011Theservicesystemforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesisasystemfortheseenterprisestogainaccesstosuchfactorresourcesasinformation,fundsandtrainedpersonnelaswellasrelevantproducerservicesinthecourseofestablishing,lopmentofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesandisalsoamainchannelforthegovernmenttoimplementpoliciestowardsmallandmedium-dmedium-sizedenterprisesSincetheguidelineon"nurturingtheservicesystemforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises"wasputforwardatthe4thPlenarySessionofthe15thCPCCentralCommitteeheldin1999,Chinahas,throughaseriesofsupportivepolicies,setupaninitialframeworkoftheservicesystemwiththestate-ownedserviceagenciesforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesasthemainstayandgovernment-supportedsocialintermediaryserviceagencies(tradeassociations,chambersofcommerceandnonprofitorganizations)amajoragenciesinthecectservicefunctionsofsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesbythegovernment,suchagencieswereestablishedwithgovernmentfunds,whichprovidedservicestosmallandmedium-siz,therehadbeen525state-ownedserviceagenciesforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesacrossthecountryandabout1/3ofprovinces,regionsandmunicipalitieshadsetuptheserviceagenciesattheprovincial,,thestate-ownedserviceagencieshavealsojoinedhandswithmorethan4,000socialized,,thenumberofcreditguaranteeinstitutionsforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesreached5,547,,,theinformationservicesystemforsmallandmedium-sizedenterpriseshasexpandedfromanationalstationin2000to47provincialstationsand949subsidiarystations,ope,,thecentralgovernmenthasmadeatotalinputofapproximately180millionyuanandcompletedthefreecentralizedtrainingof300,000persons,thelong-distancenet-basedtrainingof500,,thecentralgovernmenthasmotivatedlocalgove,,thece,providingsupportfor522serviceagenciesandofferedservicesto119,,,thecentralgovernmenthasarrangedthebudgetaryspecialfundsandspecialdevelopmentfundsfortheservicesystemforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisestotaling500millionyuanandsupported238constructionprojectsconductedinregionsa,23provinces,autonomousregionsandmunicipalitieshaveprovidedfundsupportfortheconstructionandoperationoftheplatformswithanearmarkedfundof480millionyuanand1,,relevantfacilitationshaveb,theStatesetupthe"InternationalMarketExploitationFundforSmallandMedium-sizedEnterprises"tosubsidizesuch,theChinaInternationalSmallandMediumEnterprisesFairhasbeenheldatregularintervals,furtheringtheconstructionofthecont,theStatehasalsoactivelyinitiatedandencouragedlargeenterprisestosetuprelativelystablecoordi,theservicesystemhasalsoachievedprogressintermsoflegalserviceandmanagementconsultingandhasfacilitatedthedevstemforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesWhenadvancingtheconstructionoftheservicesystem,alllocalitieshavemadeinnovativeexplorationsofservi,innovationsaremadeonmodeoforder-basedpurchaseofservicesbysmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,namely,smallandmedium-sizedenterprisesplaceordersthroughquestionnaires,,thestate-ownedserviceagenciesforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesorganizefinesocialresourcestooffertherightspecialservicesand,innovationsaremadeonmodeofserviceconnection,servicealliancesorspecializedsupermarketsaresetupforsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,professionalserviceagenciesofcreditguarantee,managementconsulting,technologypopularizationandtaxationagencyareselectedtorealizethelinkageofsmallandmedium-sizedenterpriseswithexcellentserviceresourcesandtooffer,agenciesofthistypehaveservedanaccumulativetotalofmorethan600,000smallandmedium-sizedenterprises.必赢BWIN足球赌博ByLiuYong,DepartmentofDevelopmentStrategyandRegionalEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo14,2013(Total4263)In2011,regionaleconomicgrowthdeclinedatlargeinChina,andinmostregionstheecono,economiesofvariousprovinces,%(aweightedaverageasperGRP),();GRPofvariousprovinces,();thepercapitaGRPofvariousprovinces,regionsandmunicipalitiescametoatotalof38,777yuan(being3,680yuanhigherthanthenationalstatistics).FollowingistheanalysisofChinasregionaleconomicdevelopmentpattern,,anoverviewofregionaleconomicdevelopmentinChinaindicatedthateconomicgrowthinChinascentralandwesternregionswasfasterthanthatintheeasternregion,thefocusofregionaleconomicgrowthandaggregatemovedwestwardcontinuously,therelativeregionalgapcontinuedtoshrinka,becosregionaleconomicgrowthwascharacterizedbythefactthateconomicgrowthwasfasterincentralandwesternregions,butslowerintheeasternregionsofChinawhilethefarwesternregion,themiddleandupperreachesoftheYangtzeRiverandTianjinwitnessedthefastestgrowthByregion,economicgrowthofChinascentralandwesternregionssurpassedthatofeastChinain5yearsrunningby2011andthesurpassinggrowthcontinuedtoenlarge,;thefarwesternregionsawafastergrowththanthegrandcentralregion,formingagainasequencingoffarwesternregion,grandcentralregionandneweasternregion,andthegroactonChinaseasternregion,andthatthecentralgovernmentsintensifyingin"7+1"integratedeconomicareasthatregionswhereeconomicgrowthisfasterthantheaverageofallprovincesandregionsareinturnthemiddleandupperreachesoftheYangtzeRiver,thefarwesternregion,themiddleandupperreachesofthePearlRiver,thenortheasternregionandthemiddleandupperreachesoftheYellowRiverand,regionswhereeconomicgrowthisslowerthantheaverageofallprovincesandregionsareinturnthecoastalareasofeastChina,forChinaandproducedahugeimpactonChina,amongothers,havebeenworsthitbythecrisis(coastalareasofsoutheastChinawereworsthitin2008).(SeeTable1).Table1 PatternandChangeoftheMacroeconomicandIntegratedEconomicAreasduring2002~2011

      HanJun,,thenationaloutputofthevegetableoilproducts(whichwereproducedwithChinesedomesticrawmaterialandprocessedbyChineseenterprises),o(%oftotalChina-madevegetableoil),theou(%)andtheoutputofedibleoilproducedwithwoodyoilplantstotalednearly300,000tons(constituting3%).,includingrapeseedplant,soybean,groundnut,sesame,sunflowerandlinseed,,groundnutandsoybeanregistersthemaximum,accountingfor70%,,(makingupover40%ofthetotaloutputofChina-madevegetableoil),(%ofthetotaloutputofChina-madevegetableoil)andthegroundnutoilproductionismainlyscatteredinYellowSea,,anusedtomakeoilaccountsapproximatelyfor1/,000tons(%ofthetotaloutputofChina-madevegetableoil)andthesoybeanoilproductionismainlyscatteredontheSongnenPlainofNortheastChina,,suchassunflower,sesameandlinseed,,andtheoutputofthoseoilcropsaddedupto2milliontons,productionofwhichismainlyscatteredintheYellowSeaandHuaihaiareasandinWestChina,withtheoilproductionreaching380,000tons,accountingfor4%,whicharecharacterizedbystrongadaptability,highoutputandsuperiorquality,gest,,,,andtheamountofannualprocessedtea-seedoilcameto277,,thewoodyoilplantswillbecomeimportantsourcesofChinaopsascotton,paddyandmaize,includingcottonseeds,maizeembryoandricebran,whichcanbeusedtoproducecottonseedoil,,makingupover16%ofthetotaloutputofChina-madevegetableoil,andtheproductionofcottonseedsandtheseedoilismainlyscatteredinthemaincotton-producingprovincesandareas,suchastheYellowSeaandHuaihaiareas,in-producingareasinNortheastChina,NorthChinaandtheYangtzeRivervalley,withtheannualoutputtotaling550,000tonsorso(makingup6%orsoofthetotaloutputofChina-madevegetableoil).ThehugepotentialfortheincreaseinChinasoilcropproductionismanifestedasfollows:Firstly,potentia,Chinahasmountedupitsinputintheenhancementandinnovationonoiltechnologiesandhasaccumulatedabundantreservesforselectionofhighyieldvarieties,explorationofhighoilcontentresource,andcultivationtechniquesfeaturinghighyield,efficiency,tyield,improvingquality,,nandmakingfulluseofthewintertimeidleland,abandonedland,floodlandandidlelandbits,Chinastillhas,bymakinguseofsuchmarginallandasthewintertimeidleland,saline-alkaliland,barrenlandandbarrenhillylandandslopesintheYangtzeRivervalley,,,thecultivationtechniquescanbeintegrated,,,withitspaddy,ducesover10milliontonsorsoofricebraneachyear(6%);China,withitscottonoutputhi,theoutputofChinasedibleoilcanbeincreasedexponentiallywiththefulluseoftheby-productsofpaddy,maizeandcotton....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ByLuWei,,ationSystemKnowledgeinnovationreferstotheprocessofacquiringnewknowledgeofnaturalscienceandtechnologythroughscientificresearch(includingbasicresearchandappliedresearch).Theobjectiveofknowledgeinnovationistopursuenewdiscoveries,toprobeintonewrules,toestablishnewtheories,andoriginationsrelatedtoproducing,diffusingandtransferresearch-orienteduniversities,andotherhighereducationinstitutions,scientificresearchinstitutionsrunbyenterprisesandgovernmentagencies,;andtheknowledgeinnovati,especiallybasicresearch,hasalongcycle,andgreatuncertaintiesandrisks;ontheotherhand,itispublic-friendly,,,thegovernmentsofthosecountrieswithmaj:oneisinterest-orientedfreeexploringresearch,whichneednothavemarketorcommercialimpactsimmediately,yetmaybringaboutabreakthroughindiscoveryandformawholenewfield;,thecombinationofbasic,theinnovationmodelhaschanged,thedifferencebetweenbasicresearchandappliedresearchhasbecomesmaller,andthecontributiononthehi-techfieldhavecomeaboutthankstoth,importantinformationandcommunicationtechnologies,suchasglobe-widebroadbandinternet,internetbrowser,compatibletimesharingsystemofcomputer,intranet,andcomputerworkstation,wereallbroughtalongbysomeunexpecteddisc,butalsoisgoodforimprovingtheabilityofintegratedinnovation,andtheabilityoffurthe,thedevelopmentoftheMP3technologyshowsthat,lithiumbatteries,andLCDallcamefromachievementsandtechnologicalbreakthroughsinbasicresearchprojectsfundedbytheDefenseDepartment,theEnergyDepartment,theNationalScienceFoundation,NationalInstitutionsofHealthandtheNationalInstitute,itcanbeseenthatanotherimportanteffectofbasicresearchistoestablishaplatformtoassembleresearchpersonnelofhigherlevels,andtomaintainalargegroupo,thebasicresearchconductedbyAmericanuniversitiesattractedandassembledthebestresearchpersonnelfromallovertheworld,fosteringalargenumberofpeopleholdingbachelorsdegrees,mastersdegreesanddoctorsdegrees,andpost-doctoralresearchstaff,putinChinaTheChinesegovernmenthasalwaysattachedimportancetobasicresearch,,theCentralCommitteeoftheCPCissuedDecisiononEducationSystemReform,whichentrustedhigherlearninginstitutionswith"thetaskoftraininghigh-levelprofessionalsanddevelopingscientificandtechnologicalculture",puttingforwardthat"higherlearninginstitutionsandtheChineseAcademyofSciencesshoulderimportantresponsibilitiesconcerningbasicresearchandappliedresearch",andthat"basicresearchandappliedresearchshouldbecombinedwithpersonneltraining".Atpresent,38universitiesoutofover1,000havebeenapprovedbythestateasresearch-orienteduniversities;andinfact,someuniversitiesthathavenotgotthe,theLeadingGroupforStateScienceandEducationDevelopmentchosetheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS)tolaunchapilotprojectforbuildingthenationalinnovationsystem,owledgeinnovationcenterofnaturalscienceandhightechnology,which,withpowerfulandsustainableinnovationability,targetingnationalstrategicgoalsandinternationalscienceandtechnologyfrontier;tobuildtheCASintoascientificresearchbaseofinternationalhighlevel,abaseoftraininghigh-leveltalentedpersonnelandpromotingthedevelopmentofChinashi-techindustries;andtobuilditintoanationalbasewiththeknowledgeofscienceandtechnology,anationalbasewithadvancedscientificoutlookandanationalbaseequippedwithtalentsofscienceandtechnology,,inadditiontotheexistingNaturalScienceFoundation,otherprograms,suchastheDevelopmentPlanoftheStateKeyFundamentalResearch(973Program)andtheSpecialProjectinEarlyStageonKeyProgramsofFundamentalResearch,tatekeylaboratories,theconstructionofkeydisciplinaryareasinuniversities,andtheconstructionofthebasicc(1)Theoverallscientificresearchexpenditurehasbeenconsiderablyincreasing,withitsproportiontotheRDinputdecreasing,,theoverallexpenditureonscientificresearchinChinanearlytripled,mentinsociety,theproportionofscientificresearchexpendituretoRDexpendituredroppeddistinctly,from33%atthebeginningoftheNinthFive-YearPlanto26%,theproportionoftheappliedresearchexpendituretothetotalRDexpenditureinChinafirstdroppedandthenrose,yetne,%peryearonaverage,alittlebithigherthanthatoftheRDexpenditure,%%%.(Table1)Table1ChangeofChinasRDExpenditureStructureC位体育官网手机版登陆

      C位体育官网手机版登陆Third,theChineseeconomybeganagradualintegrationwiththeworldeconomyafterChineseChairmanMaoZedongandAmericanPresidentRichardNixonshookpoliti,theformerEastEuropeanandSovietcountriesandsomecountriesinLatinAmerica,thewaveofeconomicinteg,andmadeitpossibleforglobaleconomicdevelopmenttofullyenjoythe"dividendofglobalization"andthe"dividendofpopulation".Asaresult,,thefloatingexchangeratesystemandtheopportunityarisingfromtheeconomicgrowthcycleinthenewroundofglobalization,donceagainfloodedtheworldwi,,rosefromUS$$,$100trillionin2002toUS$516trillionin2007,agrowthofmorethanfivefolds.LongGuoqiangZhangLipingThisresearchgrouphasrecentlymadeanin-depthinvestigationof11multinationalRDinstitutionsbasedinBeijindtheirChina-basedRDactivitiessince2004andsomemajorpositivechangesaretakingplaceintheareasofscale,sgovernmentsatalllevelsshouldseizethistreeest,moreforeign-investedRDins,theearly100,,mitedtoadaptingtolocalcustomers;manyinstit,,thestatusofChina-baceovertheRDdir,lpersonnelfromabroadtoleadtheirRDactivities,butalsotrainedagreatnumberoflocalpersonnelthroug,tialtoBeTappedTheChina-basedRDactivitiesofmultinationalcompanieshavegreatlyelevatedChinaevelRDpersonnel,,multinationalRDinstit,ationalRDActivitiesInternationalexperienceindicatesthatmultinationalRDactivitiescanhavetechnologicalspillovertohostcountriesthroughthefollowingchannels:theleadingeffectonthetechnologicaldevelopmentofupstreamanddownstreamenterprises,thedemonstrationandcompetitioneffectonenterprisesinthesamesectors,andtheknowledgespillovereffectarisingfrompersonnelflow,,multi,andtrprisesandacademicinstitutionsarestillfew,multinationalcompanntriesThehigherthelevelofmultinationalRDactivitiesis,,thelevelsofmultinationalRDactivitiesinChinaare,thet,theRDactivit,thetop-levtriesintermsoflearningabilityandworkdiligence,,China,higherimporttariffsofRDequipmentandsamples,higherpersonalincometaxratesforRDpersonnelandinadequatefiscalsupportforforeign-investedRDactivities,ChinasRDcostisnotonlyhigherthaninIndiaandEastEurope,butalsoisclosetothe"fourlittledragons",somemultinationalcompaniesstillhavemisgivingsaboutChinaionalRDActivitiesOne,somedifferentialpoliciesdesignedtoencourageindigenousRDactivitieshaveweakenedutthedirectionofChina,theexistingpolicieshavemadeitdifficultforforeign-investedenterprisestoparticipateingovernmentrese,thehouseholdregisterandsocialsecuritysystemsregard,ChinastillhasnocompleteandsoundcustomsfacilitymeasuresforinternationalRDactivitiesandhascustomsbarrierstoRDequipmentandespeciallysecond-handtestequipment,alcompaniestorelocatehigherlevelsofRDactivitiestoChinaandtofurthertapthet,whichcanbrin,manycountrieshaveworked,Chinaenjoysadvantageinmarketscaleandpotential,,fiscalinput,,Chinashouldtapadvantagesandovercomedisadvantagesandworkhardtocreateaworld-rateenvironmentforRDinvestment....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

      LiuShijin,YuBin,ZhangLiqun,YangJianlong,LiJianwei,ChenChangshengFangJinThereweresignstharnmentanditsgradualeffect,theen,weshouldattachgreatimportanttoissuessuchassharpeningemploymentcontradictionsrelatedtoeconomicoperation,dramaticdeclineofenterprisesperformance,inflationarypressurerelatedtotheswiftgrowthofcreditf,macroeconomicpoliciesshouldfocusonpromotingthereboundofmarket-drivendomesticdemand,whilemaintainingthescopeandeffectivenessofgovernmentinvestments,avoidingasecondrincethesecondhalfof2008,%%,whichwasnotonlyduetotheimpactofinternationalfinancialcrisisandaconspicuousslowergrowthofworldeconomy,butalsorelatedtothefactthatdomesticleadingsectors,suchasrealestateandautoindustries,entereda,thedevelopmentpatternonwhicheconomicgrowthhasbeenrelyingforalongperiodoftimewasbolsteredbylowpriceandhighinvestmentofelements,suchaslaborforce,landandresources,soitbecomesdifficulttokeepitsustainedwhensignificantchangestakeplaceininternationalanddomesticsituation,,thegro,thechangeinmarketexpectationsandreflectionofenterprises,theover-pessimisticexpectationsweregraduallymultiplied,andthemark,heavyindustrywhichholdsaconsiderablysignificant,lotsofintermediateproductsandlargeinvestmentdemand,oncetheultimatedemandshrinks,itseffectwillspreadalongtheindustrialc,withahighforeigntradedependenceratio,pricesofcommoditiesagainstthebackgroundoffinancialspeculationininternationalmarketsdramaticallydeclinedandimposedsevereimpactsondomesticpricesystem,whichgeneratedthephenomenonof"over-adjustment",differentfrompreviousones,wasbasedontheconditionsofChina,enterp,lackingofcareformarketchanges,imulusmeasuresaccordingtothechangesininternationalanddomesticeconomicsituation,includingdramaticallyincreasingfinancialinputandimplementingstructuraltaxreduction,establishingamassiveplanforindustryadjustmentandreinvigoration,providingvigoroussupporttoscien,,,i,somekeyindicators,s,,%.Fourth,thedeclineofoutputandsalesvolumeofkeyproducts,suchaspowergeneration,rawcoal,cement,steel,,lastQ4andQ1in2009,thesituationofmajoreconomiessuchastheUnitedStates,,domesticinvestmentandconsumptiondemandsaretobefurtherlaunched,andthedownwardpre,%,th%yearonyear,%,theresultofaquestionnaireconductedbyChineseEntrepreneurSurveySystemonover1,000entrepreneursshowedthatover50%ofentrep,someeconomicindicatorsarereturningtonormalintheshortrun,overalleconomicoperationispreliminarilystabilizing,eryoftheOverallEconomyThefactorsinfluencingeconomicgrowthforthewholeyearcanbeobservedfromthreeaspectsincludingforeigndemand,tent,,therecoveryofmarket-d,butthepossibilityoffurtherslideisnotexcludedForeigndemanddramaticallydeclinedowingtotheimpactofinternationalfinancialcrisisandeconomicrecession,anditisinevitableforChina,foreignimportersdramaticallycompressedstockinordertolowermarketrisksandreducetied-upfunds,,theexchangerateofsomecountriesdramaticallydepreciated,whichdamagedthecompetitivenessofChinasexportreportednegativegrowthonayear-on-yearbasisinlastNovember,,processingtrade-orientedITproductsbecamethemainfactorthatdraggedexportslide,whilethedeclineofexportvolumeoflightindustryandtextileproducts,suchasgarments,shoes,,,thankstotheincreasedexportrebateratesforlabor-intensiveproducts,thereisasignificantreboundinexports,,,exportsinprocessingtradedroppedlessthanthatinJan,,Americancommoditiesandothershopsfordailynecessities,exclusiveboutiquesforclothing,furniturestoresandnon-fuelcommoditiesofWal-Mart%,%,%%,asdevelopedcountrieshavetakeneconomicstimulusplansinsuccession,ifprivateconsumptionceasestoslip,inventoryadjustmentsofoverseasretailerswillbecompletedinthesecondquarter,,whileexportgrowthdramaticallysloweddowninbothJanuaryandFebruary,%yearonyear....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,:LiuShijin,JinRenqing,:ofthetaskforceparticipatedinthediscussion.Globalexpansionhasenhancesstudyshowsthat,duetotheeconomiesofscaleandthesynergyeffect,thesuccessfulmergersandacquisitionsamongpharmaceuticalenterprisescansaveabout15%~25%oftheresearchanddevelopmentcosts,5%~20%ofproductioncosts,15%~50%ofmarketingcostsand20%~50%ofadministrationcostsfortheenterprises(TheMcKinseyQuarterly(VI),EconomicSciencePress,1998.).Globalexpansionhasalsoincreasedtheglobalmarketaccessionbyasmallnumberofkeyphar,thesalesvolumeofsomedozenkindsofkeypharmaceuticalshasaccountedforabout30%oftheglobalpharmaceuticalsalesvolume,ofwhichthetoptenkindsofpharmaceuticalshavemadeupabout10%sdomesticpharmaceuticalenterpriseshasgenerallyshownafastincreaseovernearly30yearsfromover800inthebeg,thevastmajorityofpharmaceuticalenterprisesaresmallinscalewithlimitedeconomicscale,andthewholepharmaceuticalindustryislessthanRMB300,000yuan,stoptenpharmaceuticalenterprisesonlyaccountfor10%orsoofthesalesincomesofallpharmaceuticalenterprises,beingmthesalesvolumeofPfizeralone.(2)TheUnitedStates,EuropeandJapandominatethepharmaceuticalinnovationandChina"newchemicalentities(NCEs)",theinternationallyrecognizednewpharmaceuticalstandard(NCEsrefertothematerialsthathavenotbeenratifiedbythepharmaceutapprovedormarketedbymajorindustrializedcountries.),themajorityofnewchemicalentit,during1986~2005,,therewere327inEurope,287intheUnitedStatesand109inJapan,%ofallnewlydevelopedpharmaceuticalsintheworld;Chinaandothercountriesandregionsdeveloped36NCEsinall,%.By"proportioninAmericanpatentapplications",theinnovationpotentialindicator,theUnitedStates,inarrearofIndiainrecentyears(Table3).Table2GloballyApprovedNCEsduring1986~2005(Unit:piece)C位体育官网手机版登陆

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